Protestant churches

Protestant churches
   Of the world’s 1.7 billion Christians (around 25 percent of world population), about a quarter are, at least nominally, Protestants (more than twice as many are Roman Catholics). Historically, ‘Protestant’ was the nickname for those who at the Diet of Speyer in 1529 rejected the majority decision that would have banned Lutheranism in the Catholic parts of Germany. Though originally applied to churches adhering to the teachings of Martin Luther (1483–1546) or the Genevan reformer John Calvin (1509–64), ‘Protestant’ became one of the terms used to denote the various churches, sects and denominations—their very number and diversity provoking further criticism from Catholics —that sprang up during the Reformation in the sixteenth century.
   Characteristics of Protestantism are the conviction that the source of revealed truth is the Bible, which is to be read in the congregation’s native tongue rather than Latin, and the doctrine of the universal priesthood of believers, which means that the clergy have a less crucial role than in Roman Catholicism. While Protestant churches respect the sacraments, with some (such as the Baptists) placing great emphasis on certain of them, they are generally less important than for Roman Catholics. A common factor amid bewildering variations in organization, church discipline and liturgical practice is a distrust of the authoritarianism and centralization considered characteristic of Roman Catholicism. The preference for self-government in individual congregations, which generally have to be financially self-sufficient, is marked, though episcopal structures or something similar often serve a unifying function.
   Protestantism accepts as a fundamental in theology the doctrine that mankind is separated from God by sin and cannot be redeemed through any individual’s effort, but only by the divine will. Nevertheless, great stress has always been laid on the obligations of examining one’s own conscience and following a strict moral code. It has been argued that a consequence has been the development of selfreliance and high standards in personal and public life, translated sometimes into the ‘Protestant work ethic’ and ‘Protestant thrift’, thought by some commentators to be, along with individualism, formative and progressive influences in Protestant societies. In a multicultural, multi-faith Britain where Christianity has declined, recent years have seen the gradual replacement of antagonism, not only between the various Protestant churches but also between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, by tolerance and mutual respect as witnessing, albeit in differing ways, to the same faith.
   See also: Anglican Church

Encyclopedia of contemporary British culture . . 2014.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Ordination of women in Protestant churches — Part of a series on Christianity and Gender Theology Female disciples of Jesus Gender roles in Christianity …   Wikipedia

  • Community of Protestant Churches in Europe — The Community of Protestant Churches in Europe (CPCE) is a fellowship of over 100 Protestant churches which have signed the Leuenberg Agreement. Together they strive for realizing church fellowship, especially by cooperation in witness and… …   Wikipedia

  • List of the largest Protestant churches of the world — The largest Protestant church networks or denominations in the world possibly are: List of Churches with size #Evangelical Church in Germany (Germany, about 26,000,000) #Eglise du Christ au Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo, about… …   Wikipedia

  • Churches for Middle East Peace — Type 501(c)(3) Founded 1984 Location Washington, D.C. Key people Warren Clark, Executive Director Area served …   Wikipedia

  • Swiss Federation of Protestant Churches — ▪ religious organization German  Schweizerischer Evangelischer Kirchenbund,  French  Fédération Des Églises Protestantes De La Suisse,         confederation founded in 1920 to represent the interests of the churches in social issues, government… …   Universalium

  • Protestant — ► NOUN ▪ a member or follower of any of the Western Christian Churches that are separate from the Roman Catholic Church in accordance with the principles of the Reformation. ► ADJECTIVE ▪ relating to or belonging to any of the Protestant Churches …   English terms dictionary

  • Protestant Heritage — Introduction       Protestantism originated in the 16th century Reformation, and its basic doctrines, in addition to those of the ancient Christian creeds, are justification by grace alone through faith, the priesthood of all believers, and the… …   Universalium

  • Protestant Reich Church — German Evangelical Church redirects here. For the modern federation of Protestant churches, see Evangelical Church in Germany. Stormtroopers holding German Christian propaganda during the Church Council elections on July 23, 1933 at …   Wikipedia

  • Protestant Reformation — The Protestant Reformation was a reform movement in Europe that began in 1517, though its roots lie further back in time. It began with Martin Luther and may be considered to have ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648.cite book |first=Edith… …   Wikipedia

  • Protestant Church of Luxembourg — Infobox Christian denomination name = Protestant Church of Luxembourg imagewidth = caption = main classification = Protestant orientation = United Calvinism Lutheranism polity = Episcopal founder = Grand Duke Adolphe founded date = 16 April 1894… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”